Jet fuel hydrant system solutions refer to advanced infrastructure systems designed to efficiently and safely manage jet fuel storage, transportation, and distribution at airports. The fuel hydrant system streamlines fuel delivery processes, offering cost savings, improved environmental sustainability, and increased convenience for airlines and airport authorities.
Overall, these systems are a crucial component of airport operations and are instrumental in ensuring the smooth and efficient functioning of the aviation industry. Hydrant fuel systems are essential to the aviation industry as they ensure continuous fuel supply to aircraft, contributing to smooth operations, timely departures, and overall efficiency.
Definition Of a Hydrant System
A hydrant system is an underground, pressurized fuel pipeline network spanning the fuel tank farm to the aircraft parking area. The system allows fuel delivery to aircraft tanks via a “hydrant dispenser.” The fuel is transported under pressure to the jet fuel hydrant system solutions from the airport fuel depot through a fixed pipework installation, typically buried, to hydrant pits at each aircraft fuelling position.
The system begins at the inlet to the hydrant pump and ends at the hydrant pit valve utilized for fuelling aircraft.
Aircraft refueling can be done at international airports through fuel trucks or underground pipelines. Fuel trucks transfer fuel from their tank into the aircraft, which a hose connects to the fuel truck. However, connecting an aircraft’s tank inlets with an underground piping system through a hydrant is the most optimal fueling method. It increases safety, shortens the aircraft’s turnaround time, and reduces overall costs.
Efficient airport fuel management is paramount for the smooth functioning of apron operations. The aviation fuel sector’s core lies in safe and efficient aircraft refueling. Although hydrant systems are primarily effective, their complexity poses persistent challenges that must promptly address for a seamless fueling experience.
Simplified Fuel Management
Automating and optimizing jet fuel hydrant system solutions leads to substantial airport cost savings. These systems reduce infrastructure and transportation costs by eliminating the need for tanker trucks. Hydrant systems’ accurate measurement and monitoring capabilities also help prevent fuel losses and minimize wastage.
The system ensures an efficient and direct fuel distribution from centralized storage tanks to aircraft, minimizing fuel losses and optimizing fuel usage. This efficiency can result in cost savings through better fuel management.
The most significant difference between modern and older systems is that the newer designs take more into consideration the environmental concerns, leak detection, and corrosion control — more automation so that you have better inventory control in the tanks and the lines. You can detect a leak much quicker than before.
Hydrant systems play a crucial role in delivering aviation fuel to aircraft. It is essential to comply with all the requirements related to the design, construction, and operation of aviation fuel handling systems to maintain the quality and cleanliness of jet fuel at all times. Ensures that the fuel delivered to the aircraft is high quality and meets the necessary standards.
Safer Fueling Operations
Hydrant systems are considered an optimal fueling method since they provide an environmentally friendly, fast, and reliable refueling method with an overall positive impact on the safety and efficiency of everyday airport operations.
The safety of the terminal ramp will receive a significant boost since refuelers will no longer need to maneuver near aircraft. Eliminating tank truck refuelers from the terminal ramp will allow more space for the remaining ground service equipment to operate. Additionally, a new hydrant fueling system will enhance these efficiencies by allowing aircraft to fuel at each terminal’s gates, eliminating the need for tank truck refueling and reducing associated traffic.
Additionally, these solutions offer a higher level of safety by minimizing the risk of spillage or leakage. They are designed to meet strict industry standards, ensuring fuel is delivered accurately, securely, and reliably.
Hydrant Emergency Shutdown (ESD) System
Jet fuel is a highly flammable substance, and any mishap in its management can have severe consequences. Jet fuel hydrant system solutions are equipped with advanced safety features and protocols to minimize the risk of accidents and ensure the security of the fuel supply.
An emergency fuel shutoff system is used with all hydrant fueling systems to provide an emergency shutdown in case of a fuel spill or overfill. When an emergency shutoff occurs, the hydrant line control valve in the control valve vault will close, stopping fuel flow to the hydrant fuel system. Also, the transfer fuel line pumps at the fuel storage facility can be stopped to provide extra protection from a fuel spill.
All hydrant systems shall include an emergency fuel shutoff system to stop fuel flow at each aircraft gate in the event of a spill or emergency. The system shall consist of adequately marked signage to locate pull or break-glass. The signage shall be following NFPA 407 requirements.
Operators should be trained in the safe operation of their equipment, including the location of ESD stations, and in locating a safe route of egress in the event of an emergency. ESD stations should always remain accessible, and apron equipment should not block signage and stations.
General System Design Considerations
Hydrant systems at airports constitute an integral part of aviation fuel production, distribution, storage, and delivery into aircraft. The system’s effectiveness depends on the correct design, construction, and operation of each interfacing component to guarantee asset integrity and fuel quality, ensuring the delivery of clean, dry, and on-specification fuel into aircraft.
A hydrant system comprises three primary components: pipelines, hydrant pits, and pumping and control systems. The system’s design depends on traffic forecasts, airport development programs, aircraft types, and design trends. Therefore, it is critical to collect and analyze all relevant data during the evaluation stage to establish design parameters and consider realistic initial and future growth predictions.
Installing a hydrant system is economically feasible if there is a high volume of fuel flow rather than the size or number of gates. The need for a hydrant system is determined by the destination and range of flights, with longer flights requiring more fuel and making it more necessary. Additionally, hydrant systems significantly over- or under-sized in fuel flow velocity can result in future operational problems.
The size of an airport is also a critical factor in determining whether or not it has a hydrant system. While larger airports typically have hydrant systems, it depends on the fuel flow volume and the cost/benefit analysis. A hydrant system is a significant investment, so it is essential to consider the cost and benefits. Installing a hydrant system can be an excellent investment if an airport has a large fuel flow volume and a favorable cost/benefit analysis.
Jet Fuel Hydrant System Layouts
Going with the lowest price option is optional, and competence must be evaluated carefully. Moreover, any new hydrant or system extension must be operable, maintainable, and extendable. In other words, the design must account for the system’s entire life cycle.
Hydrant system layout design with spurs (dead ends)
This system is characterized by its simplicity and cost-effectiveness. However, its inflexible design presents challenges for future extensions or significant header uplift changes. Given the ‘ single feeder line ‘ concept, these modifications require an expensive overhaul of the pipe dimensions. Commissioning or maintenance of the system by flushing and pigging is intricate, primarily due to the ‘dead-end’ piping configuration and the application of reducers. Moreover, shutting down a section of the hydrant for any reason results in the denial of hydrant supply downstream of the shutdown area.
Hydrant system layout design enabling fuel circulation
A more advanced hydrant system layout involves looped system headers divided into segregated sections fed from two feeder lines. Such a system offers significant flexibility during commissioning, flushing from one tank to the hydrant and back to another, maintenance, pigging, and future capacity increase.
Ideally, the hydrant system should be looped to encircle the terminal, concourse, or fueling apron. This arrangement provides the most excellent flexibility in the system’s operation, facilitates the flushing process, and maximizes fueling operations in case of a line shut down for maintenance or repair.
Hydrant pit valves enable precise fuel flow control in the aviation industry. Jet fuel hydrant system solutions pit valves are specifically designed to ensure that fuel is delivered at the appropriate rate and pressure, adhering to the strict standards set by the industry. Proper positioning of hydrant pits is crucial for the effective and reliable functioning of the hydrant system. Ensuring that the hydrant pit valves are situated correctly relative to the aircraft parking position is imperative to facilitate efficient refueling of the aircraft types in question.
Each aircraft parking position requires one to three hydrant fuel pits, depending on the type of aircraft parked there. Fuel pits for narrow-body, wide-body, and jumbo aircraft are all located in different positions. These pits are carefully constructed and made of materials that can withstand the tough conditions found in pit environments. They must endure extreme temperatures, corrosion, and high-pressure situations.
It is important to consider placing hydrant pits away from the access zone of the aircraft baggage door. This will reduce the chance of collisions with hydrant pit couplers caused by baggage handlers or other ground service providers. It is also best to avoid placing hydrant pit valves under low-level engine nacelles, near engine inlets and exhaust, or aircraft vents.
The fuel pit of a hydrant is typically fitted with a cast aluminum cover that can be promptly removed to facilitate access to the hydrant valve. Such pits must be engineered in a manner that enables them to withstand the anticipated wheel loads emanating from aircraft, tugs, and all other ground service equipment. This design consideration ensures that the hydrant pit is durable and can withstand the various loads it may be subjected to.
Fuel Servicing Vehicles or Carts
There are various types of benefits related to implementing a hydrant system. First off, the total time of refueling is lower. Next, apron safety increases because of the utilization of smaller and lighter dispensers that do not carry any flammable fuel. Also, environmental impacts are lower due to lower emissions. The dispenser may be a mobile vehicle or a small, trailer-mounted dispenser cart semi-permanently located at each aircraft parking gate.
Its integration underscores the aviation industry’s commitment to modernizing operations and reducing its carbon footprint. In fact, after constructing and implementing hydrant refueling, the airport will need fewer dispensers than fuel trucks for the exact extent of the operation. However, implementing hydrant refueling does not mean the airport can eliminate all fuel trucks; a few of them still must be present if there is a need for aircraft defueling or during the maintenance or failure of part of the hydrant system.
Eliminating the fuel tank trucks will reduce vehicle traffic, increase efficiency, and reduce the time required to fuel planes.
The dispenser’s function is to deliver fuel from a hydrant pit to the aircraft tank. The dispenser has many components mounted on vehicle trucks (e.g., filtration systems, meters, pressure control valves, sensors, hoses, couplers, safety and quality equipment, and parts). Yet, it has neither a fuel tank nor a pump since it delivers fuel from the hydrant system directly to the aircraft tank. Therefore, a hydrant dispenser can transfer more fuel quantities than a refueler. A hydrant dispenser is considered safer as it holds no tank and is easier to drive and maneuver at the airport aprons.
The Fuel Servicing Vehicle/Cart must have a dead-man system per NFPA 407 to stop the fuel flow and a bonding cable that should be connected to the aircraft before commencing any fueling operations. When refueling an aircraft, adhering to specific safety regulations is vital. One of these regulations is to ensure that the fuel pressure during dispensing does not exceed 50 psi. It is also crucial to use vehicles or carts with pressure controls to regulate the pressure within the aircraft. By following these guidelines, the refueling process can be carried out safely and efficiently, minimizing the risk of accidents or damages.
Jet fuel hydrant system solutions are critical infrastructure systems that ensure jet fuel’s safe and efficient distribution at airports. By providing enhanced safety, operational efficiency, and cost savings, these solutions play a vital role in the smooth functioning of the aviation industry.
Investing in advanced hydrant systems is a practical choice and a responsible one that contributes to a sustainable future for air travel.